For service implementations to be widely adopted, it is necessary for the expectations of the key stakeholders to be considered. Failure to do so may lead to services reflecting ideological gaps, which will inadvertently create dissatisfaction among its users. Learning analytics research has begun to recognise the importance of understanding the student perspective towards the services that could be potentially offered; however, student engagement remains low. Furthermore, there has been no attempt to explore whether students can be segmented into different groups based on their expectations towards learning analytics services. In doing so, it allows for a greater understanding of what is and is not expected from learning analytics services within a sample of students. The current exploratory work addresses this limitation by using the three-step approach to latent class analysis to understand whether student expectations of learning analytics services can clearly be segmented, using self-report data obtained from a sample of students at an Open University in the Netherlands. The findings show that student expectations regarding ethical and privacy elements of a learning analytics service are consistent across all groups; however, those expectations of service features are quite variable. These results are discussed in relation to previous work on student stakeholder perspectives, policy development, and the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).


Whitelock-Wainwright, A., Tsai, Y. S., Drachsler, H., Scheffel, M., & Gašević, D. (2021). An exploratory latent class analysis of student expectations towards learning analytics services. The Internet and Higher Education, 100818.