To accompany the special issue in Artificial Intelligence and Education, this article presents a short history of research in the field and summarises emerging challenges. We highlight key paradigm shifts that are becoming possible but also the need to pay attention to theory, implementation and pedagogy while adhering to ethical principles. We conclude by drawing attention to international co-operation structures in the field that can support the interdiscipniary perspectives and methods required to undertake research in the area.


  1. Mavrikis, M., Cukurova, M.,  Di Mitri, D., Schneider, J., & Drachsler, H. (2021). A short history, emerging challenges and co-operation structures for Artificial Intelligence in education. Bildung und Erziehung 2021 74:3249-263.